Monday, March 13, 2017

Não verás país nenhum blog post


  • Porque essa imagem melhor traduz suas impressões do livro.
  • Qual capítulo está mais diretamente associado a essa imagem? Resuma-o
  • Como o romance dialoga com a nossa realidade especialmente na cidade de São Paulo




People Are People

People are people so why should it be
You and I should get along so awfully
So we're different colours
And we're different creeds
And different people have different needs
It's obvious you hate me
Though I've done nothing wrong
I never even met you
So what could I have done
I can't understand
What makes a man
Hate another man
Help me understand
People are people so why should it be
You and I should get along so awfully
Help me understand
Now you're punching and you're kicking
And you're shouting at me
I'm relying on your common decency
So far it hasn't surfaced
But I'm sure it exists
It just takes a while to travel
From your head to your fist
I can't understand
What makes a man
Hate another man

Help me understand




O livro "Não Verás País Nenhum" retrata uma sociedade distópica em que não há amizade e a ética é considerada como secundária à sobrevivência, como ao assistir uma pessoa morrer e logo apodrecer é uma normalidade, e quando o personagem principal, Souza, cumprimenta pessoas no ônibus, ninguém se preocupa em cumprimentá-lo de volta.  Achei que a imagem que eu escolhi melhor traduz meus impressões do livro porque em várias cenas, encontramos situações onde o valor de uma pessoa em relação às outras é medido. Isso estimula a pergunta, será que temos esse direito de tratar pessoas de acordo com sua "utilidade"? Além disso, a música "People Are People" conecta-se com Não Verás País Nenhum porque ela principalmente reflete a tristeza e a confusão o escritor sente ao confrontar o ódio entre as pessoas. Especialmente na parte da música que diz, "eu não consigo entender o que faz um homem odiar um outro homem, ajude-me a entender. Souza é um personagem que consegue identificar a realidade pessimista desse mundo em que vive. Por isso, ele é frequentemente duvidoso e confuso.


O capítulo que está mais diretamente associado com essas representações é o capítulo, "Perversidade ou Espírito Prático? Souza Fica Confuso Quando é Impedido de Dar Água a Dois Homens que Morrem de Sede." Neste capítulo, Souza e um homem encontra dois homens que desesperadamente ameaçam Souza, Adelaide e o homem para obtener água. Enquanto Souza vá para a cozinha para dar-lhes um copo de água, o outro homem, impedindo-lo, explica logicamente em porque Souza não deveria dar o copo de água. Dizendo que " esse copo de água deve ser usado em quem tem condição de sobreviver mais tempo" e concluindo que "é um copo de água perdido". O valor da vida de um homem é correspondente se não menos valioso que um copo de água. Essa cena mostra uma dilema étnica gerado por causa de condições adversas para sobrevivência. Mesmo que a cena do livro é mais intensa que a realidade, claramente existe em nosso dia dia, esse tipo de dilema: de escolher entre a questão de seguir sua éticas ou pensar na perversidade das coisas.

Friday, October 7, 2016

Catcher in the Rye Creative Interpretation

For our first summative. Our English class was assigned to interpret creatively (without limitation to the medium of presentation), a scene from the novel Catcher in the Rye. In my case, I decided to change perspective and focus more on Holden's parents.
Rationale:
For my creative interpretation of the Catcher in the Rye, the focus is shifted on to Holden Caulfield's parents. To commence with, the scene is set to a formal Party that takes place in Norwalk, Connecticut. Through repetition of actions such as shaking hands, laughing, and smiling, I tried to give a sense of the carefully crafted elegance within the people when dealing with others, especially those of a higher class. The social class in which those gathered in this party belongs to, is definitely towards the higher range. Despite that Mr. and Mrs. Caulfield have sufficient money for their living, they are present in the occasion as an exception because Mr. Caulfield is a corporation lawyer.
To discuss the characterization, Mr. Caulfield is a very judgemental character. This is noticeable by how just by observing Mr. Smith's expensive watch and making a short conversation with him, Mr. Caulfield already assumes that Mr. Smith is a person that likes money, power and showing off. Despite the similarity between Holden and Mr. Caulfield in the way the two judge "phony" people, Mr. Caulfield refuses to consider Holden anything like him. The irony explicit in his statement and his actions is re-emphasized as he grabs another Scotch, the drink Holden continues to ask for in the city. As for Mrs. Caulfield, her act of biting her nails shows her unstable mind, contrasting to the poise she tries to maintain. Furthermore, the whole scene was about what meeting people means as an adult, showing the clash between what Mr. and Mrs. Caulfield chooses to show to others and their true nature. Among the people discussing "first world problems", Mr. and Mrs. Caulfield strain to keep their judgements or feelings of anxiety perfectly concealed.
Finally, towards the beginning of the story, there is a part that states that the music That's life by Frank Sinatra played in the background which seems like a simply unimportant part of the story. Then in the very end, the music reappears, and its lyrics are related to Holden in the sense that, although the world does not accept him for who he is, he struggles to keep his innocence. Ultimately the music is a symbol of Holden, though seeming unimportant he had always been in the background, also meaning that although Holden's parents are not the most caring of their son, they still sense his presence and are concerned about him.

Greetings ceaselessly exchanged among figures dressed in formal tuxedos and dresses. Each with a glass of liquor in their hands, the figures walked around with their backs straight, chins high, and masked with radiant smiles. Mr. and Mrs. Caulfield blended among these figures. Mr. Caulfield was dressed in a navy blue tuxedo, and a simple but elegant white long dress fit Mrs. Caulfield's fail body. In the background That's life by Frank Sinatra played subtlely.
"Mr. Caulfield!" a sleek man approached Mr. Caulfield, lightly bowing to Mrs. Caulfield before stretching his hand out. Another handshake. "Hello Mr. Smith." Mr. Caulfield responded. He ignored a sudden pang of disgust surging from the unpleasant moisture wrapped around his hands. Before letting go, Mr. Caulfield glanced unnoticeably at the watch strapped around the man's wrist, taking only a split second to realize it was a Caliber 28. Mr. Smith was a tall, young man who had a relatively high position in a automobile industry. However, that watch would still have cost him a fortune. Mr. Caulfield concluded that he was bound to be one of those people who not only desire for greater money and power, but also enjoy demonstrating their superiority by showering themselves with expensive products.
"Nice watch you've got. Mr. Smith." commented Mr. Caulfield.
"Thank you." He replied appreciatively as if having wished someone to notice the dainty object. The conversation shifted back and forth between business matters and flattery. Mrs. Caulfield occasionally peeped in with more pleasing words and smiled whenever the two let out bursts of laughter. At one point she realized her hands were at her mouth, ready to bite her nails, and quickly lowered her arm hoping no one saw her. Shortly after, Mr. Smith left swiftly noting that he wanted to get a drink. His glass still had a quarter of it filled with whiskey. The next thing Mr. Caulfield spotted was Mr. Richman, the CEO of one of the biggest food companies in the country, standing by the bar and Mr. Smith checking his hair and readjusting his tie before ever so naturally approaching the rich man. Of course he would want to make a good impression on him - it wasn't even surprising. Mr. Caulfield let out a low chuckle both satisfied by his confirmed hypothesis and annoyed by the abundance of such artificial people and continued, with Mrs. Caulfield, walking around the hall making new conversations. More handshakes. Amiable smiles, laughter. Rarely they would come across familiar faces who would eventually ask something like: "How's D.B?" or "Did Phoebe grow a lot?" or even more likely, "Is Holden doing alright?". Mrs. Caulfield would answer casually, but tried to move on to a new subject before her uneasiness became perceptible.
Tired of the non stop talking, the two walked away from the crowd. Meanwhile Mrs. Caulfield bit her nails again.
"Will you please stop that?"
"Sorry darling.. I do it unconsciously." She couldn't help but glance at her nails which were short and ugly. She couldn't leave them alone for longer than a day and knew exactly why, but quickly set that side aside by taking a big gulp of wine. Both continued to take sips from their glasses. No words were shared in between them until Mr. Caulfield broke the silence.  
"...So really, how is Holden doing in Pencey?"
"You know he never sends letters. It's been months since I've got any news of him." Mrs. Caulfield responded listlessly.
"Hopefully he's doing well. Whenever I think of when he got kicked out of… " trailing off, Mr. Caulfield tried to recall the names of the schools.
"Whooton school and Elkton Hills."
Now that Mr. Caulfield thought about it, it was funny, the fact that he had to recall names of schools his son had been kicked out of instead of some accomplishment he could feel pride on. Perhaps it was the effect of alcohol, but the thought soon turned to disappointment, and then rage.
"What's wrong with him? He doesn't have the slightest idea of what trying is. I wasn't like that when I was his age. I could never even imagine being like him." Mr. Caulfield scowled then caught the waiter just as he was about to leave, picking up another glass of Scotch from the tray.
"Don't be so critical of him. After all he's only in high school." Mrs. Caulfield found herself almost immediately defending Holden even though she was fully aware that she had made no such effort to establish a friendly relation with him.
"Well it's time for him to grow up. D.B's a writer, Phoebe's a bright kid, and so was..."
Mr. Caulfield paused, immediately regretting the words that spilled out of his mouth. Despite not having been mentioned, Mrs. Caulfield knew exactly who Mr. Caulfield was talking about: Allie.
Mrs. Caulfield swore she could feel her heart beating at irregular paces. After spending the whole night successfully, carefully orchestrating her emotions to show nothing but elegance, everything was starting to fall apart. She felt a strong sense of disappointment, even hatred towards herself for getting such an automatic reaction even after four years since Allie's death.
Emotions rampaged inside her, just by faint images of Allie lingering in her head, Mrs. Caulfield felt tears attempting to emerge and had to make her best effort to contain them. "Anyways I can't help but being concerned about Holden."  Mr. Caulfield concluded hastily, attempting to end this discussion as soon as possible.
"He'll do well..." Mrs. Caulfield whispered. The two remained silent as the music continued playing through the crowd.


That's life (that's life) I tell ya, I can't deny it
I thought of quitting, baby
But my heart just ain't gonna buy it
And if I didn't think it was worth one single try

I'd jump right on a big bird and then I'd fly

Wednesday, June 8, 2016

Creative Piece Analysis

Now that our class had been introduced to many different skills required for Ceramics, we now shifted to incorporating our creativity into our thrown pieces.  Despite that the name "creative project" allows us a wider range of choices, Ms. Ariani noted about how it is important that the piece being used is already thrown with appropriate skills and then altered, rather than simply calling something made by accident as "creative".

However unfortunately, I encountered a problem even before I began the project in regards to this. I had a very limited choice of vases to choose from because considering the time we had left for the clay to dry, throwing a new vase for the creative project seemed to be a challenging option. I had thrown 5 vases in total, one in which I threw out (because it was so bad), two that was selected for my set of vases, and that left two vases -one that was a poorly made but normal vase, and the other that was poorly made but a more unique looking one.


<-- "poorly made but normal vase"

<-- "poorly made but a more unique looking one"



Among the two, though having been thrown with limited skill, I judged that the one with the unique shape would be more more adequate for this project. Also by then I had in mind that I could be able to create a candle holder using that vase.

I started off with trimming. However another problem I encountered was that, while there was a lot of excess clay that needed to be trimmed, the trimmer was missing one of the tools that was responsible for keeping the vase in place. Luckily, I was able to resolve this problem by choosing to trim as accurately as possible without a trimmer, but using a needle point and a small knife like tool. Even after removing great amounts of clay, the wall was still pretty thick. Yet this was a remaining problem I just had to cope with. Besides removing the clay around the base of the vase, I had to create a hole in the bottom of it as well. This was because the vase would become the lid of the candle holder and in order to put the candle in there would have to be a open space for the candle to enter.








After finishing with the trimming, I moved on to carving leaf and flower shapes into the the walls (completely, to make leaf, flower shaped holes). This was the part where the problem with the thick walls left slight difficulties.



The top part of the vase was decorated with a big single rose which was an idea inspired by several ceramic pieces I found on the internet. I took soft clay, shaped it into a flat "petal" and after scraping the surface of the vase and applying some water, attach the flat clay pieces to create a rose-like shape. Then I went over the attached part with a blender and smoothened the rims of the petals that were slightly cracking.



In such way I finished altering the vase itself. Yet since what I intended to make was a candle holder (the vase being the lid part), I needed a plate to put the candle on. To resolve this I simply took some clay, made a slab and cut it into a circle. Considering that the candle might melt, I created a difference in height between the inner and outer part of the plate so that the melted candle would stay in the plate. I also created leafs just like how I created the petals (molding soft clay) and attached it to the rim to include a small detail.


As for the glaze, the images shown above is the project already glazed using bombeiro red (a red color that has depth) for the entire rose with pedra (stone color, but a somewhat gold, beige color when used over bombeiro red) on its rims and the leaves, and camel (red brown color with yellow-beige texture) for the base of the vase and the plate. Nonetheless, when I saw the project after having been fired, I found that the rose was not emphasized at all and everything seemed to blend in too much. Despite wanting to change the parts glazed by camel to white, since that was impossible after the vase was glazed with a dark color, I resolved this problem by choosing to re-glaze it with black glaze (not out of the kiln yet).


Summarized table of problems and how I resolved them:

Problem
How I resolved it
No time to throw a new vase just for the creative project
Use a vase that was already thrown. Try to get the best out of it
Too much excess clay, trimmer not working
Trim using a needle point, small knife-like tool
Need a hole in the bottom for the candle to fit in
Cut out a hole in the bottom of the vase
Thick walls
Not quite resolvable, but dealt with
Cracking of the petal
Smoothened using hands, blender and water
No bottom part of the candle holder
Create a plate using a slab
Unsatisfying glazing
Re-glaze with black glaze








Vase set analysis

Our ceramics class previously proceeded through throwing cylinders, and bowls to develop our skills. Now the last and most challenging set we would end with was the vase set. The proceedures to throw a vase are the following (again this is simillar to how a cylinder and a bowl is thrown since all pieces created using the wheel are developed starting with a cylinder):

1. Create a cylinder - check steps to follow which are in the cylinder blogpost

2. When creating the cylinder careful not to make it to thin because there should be enough clay to shape the cylinder into a vase without it collapsing or tearing.

3. With two hands open the cylinder by leaning your hands to an outwards direction (but do not apply pressure on the clay)


4. In the same way bring the clay back in (the position where you do so can differ!)


5. Next, create a neck (can be short or long) and lastly bring a certain amount of clay outwards.


A vase I believe has a wider range of shapes to try because the height of the vase, its width, the height of the neck etc, can vary.




Vase #1


The first vase I made was done while I was throwing bowls for my bowl set. I was fortunately, able to create a vase-like vase on my first trial, but I had ripped parts of it a few times because I put too much pressure as I tried to create a neck, so the vase turned out smaller than what it should have been. Also, the bottom of the vase tuned out to be very thick. The photo shows a view of the vase after it had been trimmed, yet before it was trimmed the shape of the walls did not follow through to the base but left a thick "foot" (not created through trimming, but just entirely formed of clay).



Vase#2 - (no photo)















The second vase I threw was a complete failure. I tried to get a triangular shaped vase like the one on the right end of the drawing. However the walls were not straight and very uneven (it was possible to feel a lot of bumps present). Fortunately, the unevenness of the vase was later resolved by not going back and applying an even amount of pressure when raising the walls of the cylinder/vase. Another problem of this vase was that the base was very thick and the shape of the neck didn't seem to go well with the shape of the whole vase.



Vase #3

This vase was the most challenging but successful one. I managed to bring up the clay to a tall height and shape the cylinder into the shape I wanted. The walls were also even in thickness. I did encounter a problem with the base being too thick and the rim being uneven, but the uneven rims were resolved by cutting the uneven part off using a needle point.

Vase #4




















Lastly, vase #4 was initially planned to form a similar shape to vase #3, yet the base started out larger (wider) so it ended up looking wider and shorter. Still, to have some correlation between the two vases, I made the rim in the same style. For this vase I was able to resolve the problem with the thick base (which my vases had in common) by creating a deeper hold in the first place.


Plans to glaze:
Almost all of the cylinders and bowls I glazed had used a warm color (red, brown, beige).  So this time I am planning on using a cool color, most likely blue, and white. To make it unique, I don't think I would be using those colors to glaze the inside and outside of the vase, but by making a diagonal division and glazing each side with a different color.

Monday, June 6, 2016

Science Genius Project

To finalize our Science course each individual was to think of a topic they were interested in and conduct a project. My research topic was related to bio-chemistry and I decided to investigate this through observing results from an experiment. The research question I came up with was: How does the ph applied on a banana affect its brownness after a certain time period?

Introduction:
When fruits go brown, it becomes seemingly unpleasant. This browning is a result of abundant enzyme activity of an enzyme called Polyphenol Oxidase (present in fruits like apples, pears or bananas), a substrate forming a family of chemicals called polyphenols, and oxygen. The products of this chemical reaction is what causes the brown color (Fighting with foods, 1). Also, to explain the browning of a banana skin is due to a hormone called Ethylene. While it breaks down complex sugars to simple sugars -also causing the banana to become softer-(Burton, n.p.), chlorophylls that are responsible for the green color of an unripe banana is also broken down to cause it to go brown(Coning, n.p.). Thus, the browning of a banana is also related to over-ripening of the fruit. Meanwhile, many times at home people use lemon or other acidic fruit juices as a method of delaying the browning of fruits. Whether or not this phenomenon is related to the ph of the fruit juice is what I will be investigating.



With this basis of knowledge I began to construct my experiment:

Independent Variable: Ph level of different solutions
Dependent Variable: The brownness of the banana
Control variable: time, temperature, thickness of the banana, time left in solution

Materials:

  • Five 100 ml beakers
  • 3 bananas (unripe, ripe, rotten)
  • 60 ml of each ph solution (2,4,5,7,10)
  • Iodine
  • Forceps/tweezers
  • Measuring cylinder
  • 3 Plate
  • A knife 


Procedure:
1. Prepare all materials
2. Peel the banana 
3. Measure 20ml of ph solution and put it in a labeled 100 ml beaker indicating its ph level
4. Using the knife, cut 7 slices of bananas with a thickness of 1cm towards the middle of the banana
5. Grab the banana using forceps and dip it out in the ph solutions
5. Move the banana slices onto a plate with labels of the ph levels 
6. After 24 hours, observe visual changes of browning
7. Then take the Iodine and apply two drops to the banana and observe the difference in their color

Initially, I planed the ph solutions to have a ph level of: 2,5,7,9,11. The enzyme responsible for fruit browning: Polyphenol Oxidase, has an optimal ph of 6.0-7.0 (Worthington, n.p.). Considering this the plan was to have a neutral ph, a slightly more acidic and basic solution, and a more extreme sample of the two sides of the ph scale so that it would be be easier to observe the effect of the different ph levels on the browning of the bananas. However the only solutions available were 2,4,5,7 and 10 which were the solutions I used. Now just like how at home people slightly coat fruits like apples, pears, and bananas with lemon or pineapple juice to try to prevent them from going brown, I tried to do the same thing (coat the banana with the solution) by simply dipping the banana and taking it out right away without further delay. As for the testing with Iodine, since the browning of the banana skin is related to "over-ripening" I assumed that the browning of sliced bananas may also have a similar relationship; and because the ripening process of a banana includes starch turning into glucose, Iodine (tester for starch) was used to determine how ripe the banana was (the darker the color, the more starch present).

Hypothesis: I hypothesized that since lemon juice is used as an effective method of preventing the browning of a fruit and the reason the bananas turn brown is due to Polyphenol Oxidase enzymes, ph would affect the browning of the banana over 24 hours and the more acidic or basic the applied solution got, less browning would be observed.


Data Collection:



Type of banana/
Color of banana
Unripe
Ripe
Rotten
Initial Iodine test
Black color with hints of very dark brown.





Very dark brown, black in certain areas, but lighter than the unripe banana. Slightly showing greenish brown colors.

Yellowish color with some parts that is light brown. Hints of brownish green is noticeable.


Initial appearance of banana
Unpeeled - green on each end.
Peeled- Light yellow, hard.









Unpeeled - completely yellow with few brown spots.
Peeled - Light yellow but very slightly darker shade of yellow than the unripe banana.


Unpeeled - black (very dark brown), smaller in size as if it had been shrunken.
Peeled - brown center surrounded by dark yellow parts of the banana, brown rims, hints of pinkish red stripes, very soft (mushy), looks shriveled.
Control group
Dark yellow and somewhat beige color
Dark yellow, brown rims. The bottom part of the banana turned brown. Small brown spots towards the center of the banana. 
Fungus had formed on the surface, coating the banana with a white film. Seems to have turned completely dark brown inside, but looks like a grayish color due to the fungus.
Ph 2
Light yellow darker shade than initial appearance but almost no chance had occurred.
Dark yellow, but relatively lighter than the other bananas. Few small brown spots towards the center of the banana. Slight browning in the center of the banana
Fungus had formed on the surface, coating the banana with a white film. Seems to have turned completely dark brown inside, but looks like a grayish color due to the fungus.
Ph 4
Light yellow darker shade than initial appearance and the rims turned brown. Almost no chance had occurred.
Dark yellow, top part of the banana is a yellowish beige color. Rims and center are brown. 
Fungus had formed on the surface, coating the banana with a white film. Seems to have turned completely dark brown inside, but looks like a grayish color due to the fungus.
Ph 5
Dark yellow, beige color. Few blackish brown spots in the center and the bottom right part of the banana turned a slightly darker shade of brown. Dark yellow, beige color, few large brown spots with a black core. 
Fungus had formed on the surface, coating the banana with a white film. Seems to have turned completely dark brown inside, but looks like a grayish color due to the fungus.
Ph 7
Besides the left top part of the banana, the banana turned brown. Few blackish brown spots in the center and it is a grayish brown color. Dark yellow, beige color, brown rims and center, few small brown spots. 
Fungus had formed on the surface, coating the banana with a white film. Seems to have turned completely dark brown inside, but looks like a grayish color due to the fungus.
Ph 10
Most of the banana turned brown. The center is a grayish brown color. Dark yellow, but the banana itself has a slightly lighter shade than those of ph 5 and 7. Has the most small dark (black) spots. 
Fungus had formed on the surface, coating the banana with a white film. Seems to have turned completely dark brown inside, but looks like a grayish color due to the fungus.


Photos of how each set of bananas actually looked like:



 


State of unripe banana
Starting time of observation: May 27th, 2:34
Ending time of observation: May 30th 9:40
Comments:
Left in the refrigerator for 3 days.






Starch test results for unripe banana
No particular visible difference in the resulting color.
Comments:
Errors present, hard to analyze; will be discussed in the error section.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

State of ripe banana
Starting time of observation: May 30th, 9:54
Ending time of observation: June 1st, 1: 35
Comments:
Left in room temperature without full coverage for 2 days


Starch test results for ripe banana
No particular visible difference in the resulting color.
Comments:
Errors present, hard to analyze.

--------------------------------------------------------------------
State of rotten banana
Starting time of observation: May 30th, 10:12
Ending time of observation: June 1st, 1: 35
Comments:
Left in room temperature without full coverage for 2 days


Starch test results for ripe banana
No change
Comments:
Error present, the Iodine was unable to touch the banana due to fungus.



Processed Data:



Table showing the brownness of a banana according to the ph level of the solution applied in a scale of 1-10 (1 being lighter and 10 being darker)

Type of banana/
Ph level
Unripe
Ripe
Rotten
2
2
4
N/A
4
3
5
N/A
5
7
7
N/A
7
8
9
N/A
10
9
8
N/A
*N/A - Not Applicable










(Saeidian, 4) 



Conclusion and Error:
In conclusion I believe my data partially supports my hypothesis. I previously hypothesized that the extreme acidic or basic ph levels like ph 2 or 10 would delay the browning of the bananas. From the graph extracted from qualitative observations translated to numerical values, it shows that ph 2 and 4 clearly had less browning in both unripe and ripe banana samples. However, the basic value of 10 did not show much of its effectiveness in delaying this process. Thus, my prediction of basic solutions also being as effective as acidic solutions was shown through my data as incorrect. Comparing this to a graph from a scientific research institution, the ph dependence of polyphenol oxidase activity of a green small cherry tomato shows a moderate correlation to my own graph. From this I found out that though the optimal ph of polyphenol oxidase is 6.0-7.0, the ph in which it can act on stretches slightly further towards the basic side of the ph scale than acidic. Also, I thought that as the banana differed in brownness there would be a difference in ripeness of that banana which would be visible through the Iodine test. My data also did not support this thought because there was no difference in color between the browner bananas and the lighter ones (this was the reason why I couldn't incorporate the Iodine test results as my data collection). In addition, there were various errors present in my conducted experiment. First of all, there were errors due to external factors that I could not control such as differing temperatures throughout the day, and fungus coating my bananas. The fungus effected my results because for my last set of samples, the Iodine was unable to touch the banana because of the layer of fungus. As for temperature, since temperature is also a factor that effects enzyme activity (a concept we learned in class), the differing temperatures may have effected my results. Some human errors included not being able to keep the observation time to 24hours as planned (due to problems like locked science rooms), and the unevenness in the application of the Iodine. Although the time and temperature among one set of bananas (unripe, ripe, rotten) was kept constant since they were all on the same plate, between the different sets there were quite a bit of differences. This would have affected my results since the longer I leave the bananas, the more enzyme activity it could undergo and the purpose of different trials is to get more data within the same conditions. Meanwhile the unevenness in the application of Iodine (some were all over the banana, some formed one firm drop) made a difference in the colors because the density of the Iodine must have been different.


Work Cited:
Burton, Rebecca. "UCSB Science Line." UCSB Science Line. UCSB, n.d. Web. 06 June 2016.
"Polyphenol Oxidase." - Worthington Enzyme Manual. Worthington Biochemical Corporation, 4 Mar. 2009. Web. 06 June 2016.
Fighting with Foods. Keeping It Fresh. Bolton: European Flexographic Technical Association, 1982. Fighting with Foods. NIH. Web. 6 June 2016.
Coning, Ross K. "Fruit Ripening." Fruit Ripening. Plant Physiology Information, 1994. Web. 06 June 2016.
Saeidian, Shahriar, and Bahaaldin Rashidzadeh. Optimum Temperature and Thermal Stability of Crude Polyphenol Oxidase In GreenSmall Cherry Tomatoe (Solanum Lycopersycum) 4 (2013): n. pag. ISSN, 2013. Web. 6 June 2016.